The manufacturing industry requires different metals, from small bolts to huge aerospace machinery, when working with applications. The metal strength chart should be at the fingertips of a manufacturer because the successful production of every product depends on it.
For example, if you provide medical device parts to your client, you don’t need to use the strongest metal. However, there’s a need for a metal that offers high precision and accuracy.
Imagine what will happen using a low-strength metal when dealing with the manufacturing of automotive parts. Of Course, there can be a huge disaster.
Metal strength charts are similar to periodic tables, providing information about a metal’s other properties. There are many considerations to be made, but the metal strength comes first.
If you are confused and want a clear idea about the different properties of metal and the strength of metals, then read this article for better insight.
Common Properties of Metal Materials
1: Tensile Strength
When a metal passes the manufacturing process, it stretches to fit the purpose. Not all metals can withstand stretching because they have a lower tensile strength than metals.
A metal’s tensile strength measures the amount of strain it can bear without compromising its supporting components.
It helps determine how much force a particular metal can handle when it is stretched.
2: Impact Strength
An abrupt hammering force may add a dent to a metal surface or keep it without causing any noticeable effects. Metals are tested for their impact strength by putting them under sudden pressure.
It’s the amount of energy that metal can absorb just the moment before it gets damaged.
It determines how hard an environment a metal can survive, ultimately helping with its functionality.
3: Compressive Strength
A metal must be crushed firmly in certain applications. Some metals cannot handle this compression, ultimately getting worse damaged. In certain applications, metals are used based on their strength.
Universal testing apparatus evaluates metal compressive strength. The machine gradually puts force on the matter until it deforms or breaks. The compressive strength of a metal is determined by its ability to bear the maximum force without bending or breaking.
Why is Strength an Important Factor?
When manufacturing a machine, you cannot just take any metal and start the process, and there is a need for metal that fits the functions and purpose of the machine.
Altu, there are many other factors to consider for metals, but considering the tensile strength of metals is the most important thing.
The strength charts of metals facilitate comparison of the strength of various metals, allowing informed decisions to be made.
The strength of the metal helps to determine if the part of the machine would work accordingly or not. You cannot use a low-strength metal instead of a high-strength metal because it will affect functionality. You must compare titanium vs. aluminum to determine which metal is good for your machine parts.
Some of the machine parts are used in places where they have to bear a high impact on them. Comprehending the metal’s strength is crucial to decide whether a certain component can sustain an impact.
It is, therefore, essential to take metal strength into account.
Factors Affecting Metal Strength
1: Composition and Alloying Elements
A metal’s composition and alloying elements determine its molecular structure. The better molecular structure a metal will have, the better strength of a metal will be. Because of the molecular structure, the intermolecular forces are the main culprits giving strength or weakness to a metal.
They help to keep the different molecules of metal together in one place to keep them firmly attached.
Pure metals like iron are weaker, having very less metal strength. However, the alloys of the same metal, like iron, have more tensile strength. Adding different compositions to metal allows having better intermolecular forces between the molecules.
Most manufacturers prefer using alloys instead of pure metals when manufacturing products or parts, especially when high strength is the main requirement.
2: Heat Treatment Processing
The heat treatment of metals is important because, without heating, metal cannot be used. Very high heat can make the metals softer and easier to use. However, after a certain temperature, the tensile strength of the metal starts to lose.
The reason is that high heat breaks the intermolecular bonds of the matter, making them more ductile and malleable. Metal strength can be increased by unguided heat treatment processes, however.
3: Environmental Factors
Numerous other factors affect metals besides environmental factors. If the metal is left in water for a long time, it will affect the surface of the metal, impacting its strength.
If the metal is kept in a high-temperature area, it will expand, ultimately affecting the intermolecular bonds and structure of the metal.
A disturbed structure means lower strength of the metal.
Metal Strength Chart
|Metal Name||Density kg/m3||Hardness Rockwell||Tensile Strength psi||Yield Strength|
|Stainless steel 304||8000||88||90,000||40,000|
|Aluminum 5.52-H32||2680||20 – 25||33,000||28,000|
|Steel grade 50||7800||–||–||50,000|
Strongest Metals Used In Metals Fabrication
Steel is one of the most used metals in any manufacturing process because of its properties and quality. Especially the applications of steel in engineering and construction materials. It’s not a pure form of metal but an alloy of different elements.
Depending on the type of steel, they may also contain iron, carbon, and other components. Depending on what alloy is mixed, steel can be of different types like tool, stainless, and steel.
The high tensile strength of tungsten, distinguishes it from other naturally occurring metals. With 250,000 psi, tungsten can be used in multiple applications where extensive force is applied, and a strong metal is required.
Although tungsten has good strength, it is brittle. Due to their brittleness, many elements are alloyed throughout manufacturing operations. Due to its strength, tungsten has been widely used in a variety of industries, including mining, aircraft, and the military.
Chromium is the hardest metal known to man, but it is also one of the strongest. There are no known applications where chromium is directly used as a metal.
However, because of its good tensile strength, it is added as an alloy with other metals to give better functionality to the product.
The addition of chromium to stainless steel improves its appearance and prevents it from rusting.
It’s another metal with surprisingly elevated tensile strength. Most common metals have a very dense structure, while titanium is less dense. The high corrosion resistance makes it one of the most popular metals in medical, aerospace, and automotive applications.
No matter if they are combined with other metals or used in their pure form, titanium alloys have favorable qualities for a variety of applications..
5: Nickel Alloy
Most manufacturers use nickel alloy because of its durability, and very few metals offer the extent of resistance to corrosion that nickel offers. Because of its ability to withstand damage from heavy force, it is used in multiple applications.
Places where a metal needs to be exposed to difficult situations and conditions often use nickel alloys. The aerospace and automotive industry will not work without this strong metal.
6: Stainless Steel
Stainless steel is an impure form of steel. Steel metal is mixed with other alloys to enhance its mechanical properties. These alloys include nickel, chromium, silicon, magnesium, and iron. It has a very high tensile strength of 800 mpa. This good value helps it to go through high temperatures, even at 600 degree Celsius.
The reason for mixing alloys with steel is the high tensile strength that’s not even offered by steel alone.
Knowing How to Measure Strength
Because varied loads are placed on the materials, every metal has a unique strength. These strengths are considered when selecting a material for a particular product.
They help determine if the material is perfect for the product.
You should know the different strength types to understand the metal strength chart.
1: Tensile Strength
The strength of a metal to be pulled by force without getting damaged or breaking is called tensile strength. Tensile strength is usually measured by force per unit area of the metal. The unit used for it is the pascals or per square meter in the SI system of units.
The higher the tensile strength of a metal, the more good and powerful it is.
2: Yield Strength
When a metal is continuously kept under high force, it ultimately starts losing its exact shape and properties. The strength up to which a metal withstands the external force is the yield strength. The breaking of the metal after an increase in stress is a failure of the metal.
Yield strength is also understood to be when the material’s elasticity starts turning to plasticity, ultimately breaking it apart.
3: Shear Strength
The shear strength of the metal is opposite to the type of yield applied to it. The measure is up to the mark when the metal starts failing in its shear capacity. Shear strength is determined by the shear load that brings a sliding failure in the metal, moving it parallel to the applied force.
Simply explain, it means that if the metal is cut through with a tool, how much strength does it have to save itself from being cut?
4: Compressive Strength
Compression means pressing a metal with the utmost force. So the compressive strength of a metal is determined by how much force it will stand before being compressed by it. The compression strength test is taken in two ways that are pressing it longitudinally and vertically.
During the test, the force is applied at both ends of the metal to get a clear understanding of its compressive strength.
Strengthening Metals by Using Certain Processes
Solid Solution Strengthening and Alloying
Alloying is a widely used method for making metals stronger and increasing their tensile strength. For years metals have been mixed with alloys because pure metal forms are usually not very strong for very applications.
The more alloys added to the pure form of metal, the more metal strength is enhanced.
A solid solution is made in a solid solution strengthening procedure by adding in the crystal lattice structure of the pure metal.
Heating a material is an effective way to manufacture almost any product with the material. In addition to making the metal stronger and more durable, the heating process alters its microstructure.
Heat treatment can be done in a variety of ways, including:
Tempering: Metals are tempered by heating them as much as possible before becoming hard. The metal is held tight during the whole procedure and even after it for a specific period.
Several metals are extremely brittle in their pure form, making them unsuitable for certain applications. When tempered, the metal becomes stronger due to a reduction in its brittleness.
Annealing: The process of making a product involves heating some metals to prevent them from fracturing.Some of these metals include steel, silver, and copper. A metal undergoes recovery, recrystallization, and grain growth during the annealing process.
Normalization: The process of normalization is usually done only for steel metal to give it more strength by making it ductile.
Hardening: Metal precipitates that are very rich in metal are heated very hot to melt them.Once the salute-rich precipitates dissolve, the hardness and tensile strength of the metal increases.
However, it does not work for processes where ductile metal is required because hardening makes a metal brittle.
Hardening by Strain or Cold Working
Plastic deformation causes the metal’s strength to increase during strain hardening. Once the plastic deformation is attained, its hardness, yield strength, and tensile strength increase vigorously.
In reality, grain dislocation with entanglement is what causes the strength increase.The grains affected do not go for a deformation which helps it to increase the metal strength. Processes where cold working is involved often use strain hardening.
Common Misconceptions About Metal Strength and Selection
Selecting metal is an integral part of different applications. However, it is necessary to resolve all the misconceptions throughout selecting the metal’s strengths and weaknesses.
Sometimes it can be challenging and confusing to choose the best metal material, and the process can be time-consuming. Here we are discussing common misconceptions about metal strength that helps you in the selection of the best metal.
A. Cost is the Only Factor to Consider
In selecting a metal, the cost is an important consideration. However, many people also believe that cost is the only factor in selecting metal for their project. But it’s not too far off the mark. Choosing the best metal also involves many factors.
Selection criteria including strength, longevity, corrosion resistance, and application appropriateness are all important. However, choosing a metal only on the basis of price can result in subpar performance, a shortened lifespan, and even safety concerns.
B. Metals Are All Equally Strong
Metal strength is an integral part of almost every application. However, there is also a misconception that all metals have the same stability and power, which is wrong.
There are different types of metal, each with different strengths, and the specific application requirements should determine the metal choice.
As steel is often used for its high strength and super strong quality, aluminum is used for its lightweight and corrosion resistance.
So, all metals have different approaches, so be careful in selecting a metal.
C. Better Performance Always Results From Greater Strength
People often believe that the stronger a metal is, the better it will perform in a specific application. But this isn’t always the case.
Consider a metal that will be subjected to repeated stress cycles, for example. Metal can withstand repeated stress without cracking or deteriorating in this situation due to its fatigue resistance.
The importance of flexibility, however, may outweigh that of strength. Due to its ability to absorb more energy before breaking, malleable metal is preferred in situations where metal is subject to sudden impacts.
When selecting it for a certain application, it is imperative to consider its strengths.
Fatigue resistance, ductility, and toughness may be even more critical to performance in certain situations.
As a result, the extra time and effort invested in selecting the righteous metal can help improve safety, reliability, and performance, and helps to avoid costly and potentially dangerous shortcuts.
D. Shortcuts Can Be Taken in Material Selection Without Consequences
Choosing shortcuts in any situation in life may cause big damage or disorder. However, taking shortcuts in material selection without consequences is a huge misconception that people make while selecting metal strength.
It can lead to significant consequences such as structural failure, reduced performance, and increased maintenance costs. So, be careful, and proper selection of materials is essential for secure and safe operations.
Using a low-cost metal is not suitable for the application. It may result in costly repairs in the long run.
There are a number of misconceptions about metal strength that people make when selecting a metal. The choice of metal must be made carefully to avoid all these misconceptions.
It is essential to consult with experts in material science before selecting a metal for the application. As a result, the extra time and effort invested in selecting the righteous metal can help improve safety, reliability, and performance, as well as avoid costly and potentially dangerous shortcuts.
Selecting the right metal for your product is crucial to the overall functionality and strength. You may consider it the first step, and you might fail if this is selected wrongly.
In processes like CNC machining and injection molding, you must decide on the material you will use to get the prototype. That’s why deeply understanding your available options and their strengths is important.
Strength in metals can be found using the metal strength chart devised after research. This chart’s purpose is to save manufacturers time so they don’t have to retest every metal before using it.
Prototyping Using Machining Services from Kemal
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